The Nationalist movements were gaining strength during the period and this was noticeably disturbing the British community. The British India had its capital set in Calcutta, Bengal. The increasing scholar groups and intellectual debates on freedom and reforms were active and the British government had adopted the method to split and rule the province. The rule famously known as Divide-and-Rule was implemented first in Bengal.
In 1905, Lord Curson, the Viceroy and Governor General of India 1899-1905, ordered the partition of Bengal province for the improvement of efficiency in administration of the highly populated region. This was the official explanation provided for the change. But indeed this was the first noticeable step taken by the government to split the increasingly growing nationalist movemtn. The Bengal intelligentsia had considerable influence on the local and national politics. This was the main reason why the rule was implemented in Bengal.
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The British government had failed to gather public opinion on this change and had brought this partition in effect. This agitated the Bengali population which led to massive protests on streets as well as press. The congress found this an opportunity to regain its hold back on the public. They had found new methods to fight and drop this rule, this was by boycotting the western products and promoted the local products under the ‘˜swadesi’ banner. The population of people further increased this movement by celebrating the utsav of Rakhi and they observed Arandhan (fasting) for the day.
The new methods of struggle adopted by Indians were new and effective and were extremely different from the anti-British fights that the government was aware from the Sepoy Mutiny. When these non-violent movements were happening some group had also adopted offensive track to bring about the changThe famous Alipore Bomb case was one such infamous incident. The British government tried to mitigate this situation by implementing a set of constitutional reforms in 1909 and appointing few moderates to the imperial and provincial councils.
Finally in what the British Government felt as a goodwill gesture, the arrival of King George V in 1911 was marked as a major change in the country. The King held a durbar in Calcutta and announced the reversal of partition move and also announced the transfer of capital of British India to the newly build city near Delhi, which is currently known as New Delhi. The ceremony was marked to be happened on 23rd of September 1912. But this was also marked by the assassination attempt of Viceroy which is known as the Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy.