Estrogen and testosterone, commonly known as sex hormones, are found in all humans. These hormones play an important role in how the human body matures and changes. Estrogen is produced by the ovaries in females, and testosterone is produced by the testes in males. Both estrogen and testosterone travel throughout the blood and react with certain cells. These cells are known a target cells, and they have receptors which allow them to respond to hormones.
Estrogen affects several types of cells including uterus, breast, liver, bone, brain, heart, and liver; and estrogen impacts all of these cells differently. The hormone gets into the cells by binding with estrogen receptors. The estrogen receptors are located inside the nucleus of the cell, and the hormone becomes attached to it. Then the changed estrogen receptor binds to DNA sites and “this estrogen-receptor complex binds to coactivator proteins;” this process causes more nearby genes to become active and the production of molecules of messenger RNA, which cause the synthesis of specified proteins (Estrogen receptors). The created proteins then affect the cells in different ways depending on the cell.
Testosterone impacts several cell areas in both male and female bodies, and this hormone gets into the cells in a similar fashion as estrogen. Testosterone binds with androgen receptors inside the nucleus of the cell, these receptors interact with DNA sites and coactivators are recruited. Then RNA messengers are created, and then target genes are turned into specified proteins (Androgen receptor). Testosterone is different from estrogen because it can be converted into another hormone known a dihydrotestoststerone. Testosterone interacts with the wolffian duct, and dihydrotestosterone interacts primarily with the hair follicles, urogenital sinus, and urogenital tubercle (Androgen receptor). Non-steroid hormones are different from steroid hormones because they do not bind with receptors inside the nucleus. Non-steroid hormones are not lipid soluble, and they must be combined with membrane receptors instead (The action of hormones).
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