Lesson 25 – Shifting Coalition Sands
- Moraji Desai’s Janata government remained so faction-ridden from its inception in 1977 that it could reach no consensus on how to resolve India ‘s most compelling problems, dissolving its precious mandate in the acid of cabinet squabbles.
- India viewed Pakistan and its rigged elections for Bhutto as a threat.
- As a result of these developments, India ‘s seventh general elections brought Indira Gandhi back to the center of Delhi power in January of 1980.
- India worried about Russia ‘s intervention into Afghanistan
- India thought they could be next.
- The Islamic Republic of Pakistan under Zia ul-Haq moved diplomatically closer to its fellow Islamic nations of the Middle East rather than toward possible reunification with India in 1980 as a result of the Russian activity.
- Prospering Punjab represented the best chance for India to unite its Hindu and Sikh populations peacefully.
- Incredibly, Gandhi invaded Punjab and destroyed religious temples of the Sikhs in 1984.
- Justifiably, the Sikhs were responsible for the assassination of Gandhi in Oct of 1984. Unfortunately, rampaging mobs of Hindus in Delhi killed many Sikhs in revenge for the assassination as violence begat violence. Rajiv Gandhi, Indira’s son was sworn in as the new king er….prime minister of India .
- So the trilogy of Nehru, his daughter Indira and her son Rajiv was now complete. More of a royal line than a democratic process.
- Armed with a clear mandate, Rajiv reached several accords with Punjab , Assam and Mizora. It appeared as if the young Raj had better negotiation skills than either his mother or grandfather.
- Unfortunately, Sikh terrorism increased in Punjab and other places.
- By 1986, fighting in Sri Lanka had escalated in intensity.
- Pollution in Dehli increased dramatically. The air was fouled in Calcutta , Bombay and Madras , also.
- In 1991 Rao replaced Gandhi as premier.
- In 1992 India’s faltering economy suffered another blow from the Gulf War due to its spiraling oil prices and the return of thousands of Indian laborers from the the Middle East.
- In 1996 Gowda replaced Rao and lasted less than a year; he was replaced by Gujral.
- Kashmir , with over one half million garrisoned Indian troops, remained in a state of undeclared war between India and Pakistan .
- Why did Moraji Desai inherit many problems in India in 1971?
- How did Pakistinian elections differ from Indian elections during this period?
- How did Indira Gandhi return to power?
- Why was India worried about Russia ‘s invasion of Afghanistan ?
- How did India-Pakistan relations evovle by 1980?
- Why did Punjab continue to be economically important to India ?
- Why was Indira Gandhi assassinated?
- How did Indira’s Gandhi’s assassination precipitate widespread rioting in Delhi ?
- Why was Rajiv Gandhi successful early in his regime?
- How did continued Sikh violence affect Punjab ?
- How did fighting in Sri Lanka affect India ?
- Why is pollution a problem in modern-day India ?
- How did the Gulf War affect India ?
- Why do problems continue to exist in Kashmir to this day?
- WHY HAS INDIA CONTINIUED TO HAVE FRAGMENTED ELEMENTS WITHIN ITS SOCIETY SINCE ITS INDEPENDENCE ?
- HOW DO SOME WESTERN COUNTRIES DIFFER FROM INDIA IN RELIGIOUS TOLERENCE?
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