Tafero Lesson Plan of the Day – Social Studies – Indian History and Philosophy – Lesson 21 – Toward Indian Independence (1920-1939)

Lesson 21 – Toward Indian Independence (1920-1939)

  1. The aftermath of WW 1 brought such widespread disillusionment to India that Congress abandoned its policy of cooperation with the British Raj to follow AGandhi’s revolutionary call for nonviolent non-cooperation.
  2. As a true Mahatma, Gandhi sought to pit his yogic powers of self-control, abstinence, suffering and meditation against the awesome might of the world’s greatest empire.
  3. Young men like Subhas Chandra Bose of Bengal were so excited by Gandhi’s revolutionary call that they gave up possible careers in the coveted ICS to devote full time to the national struggle.
  4. The non-cooperation movement gathered momentum throughout the early 20’s and the British attempt to immobilize it failed.
  5. When repression mounted, Gandhi consoled his followers by redefining svaraj as “abandonment of the fear of death” and was the most inspirational message the Indian masses had ever taken to heart in their history.
  6. Under Lord Reading, India’s only Jewish vicetroy, the government pursued a policy of trying to win middle-class Indian support by granting many of the liberal reforms Congress had demanded from its inception, but Gandhi and masses of Indians read this simply as a faltering English position.
  7. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, an untouchable leader of the Mahars of Maharashtra, had just returned from abroad from Columbia U. to help form the Depressed Classes Institute in the Deccan .
  8. Nehru proposed a ” commonwealth of India ” with all powers to be derived “from the people” and with all the freedoms enjoyed by other dominions of the empire, within which it was to remain.
  9. Gandhi led the salt revolt in India .
  10. The Muslim League, under Muhammad Iqbal, proposed the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian-Muslim state in 1930.
  11. Gandhi began to use fasting as a nonviolent method of non-cooperation.
  12. Jinnah, Gandhi, Nehru, Iqbal and Bose began to attempt to unify for an Indian state in 1938.

Critical Questions

  1. What was the aftermath of WW1 in India ?
  2. What yogic powers did Gandhi use against the English?
  3. How did Bose differ from Gandhi?
  4. How did Indians illustrate their non-cooperation movement?
  5. Why was the principle of svaras important?
  6. How did Lord Reading try to placate the Indians?
  7. How did untouchables progress in India during this period?
  8. How did Nehru affect Indian statehood?
  9. How did Iqbal lead the Muslim community?
  10. Why was salt an issue in India ?
  11. How was fasting used by Gandhi?
  12. Why was the temporary dialogue between Gandhi, Jinnah, Bose, Nehru and Iqbal so crucial to India ‘s future?

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS

  1. WHAT DID GANDHI, JINNAH, BOSE, NEHRU AND IQBAL HAVE IN COMMON?
  2. WHY IS IT NECESSARY FOR DIFFERENT FACTIONS WITHIN A COUNTRY TO UNITE FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME?

Additional Internet Research Links For This Lesson:

http://www.easternstudiesdatabase.cn

Svaras

http://www.vedamsbooks.com/no13795.htm

Iqbal

http://www.muslim.org/allegs/iqbal2.htm