Lesson – 18 – Indian Nationalism – The First Movement (1885-1905)
- Indian nationalism has always been a theme scored with religious, class, caste and regional variations. Hinduism was, at this time, the primary religion of India and followed by Islam and Buddhism. It was essential that the major religions found common ground for a nationalist movement to have a chance for success. There seemed little prospect for class or caste differences to be resolved, so a strategic alliance of the religious leaders was the only practical chance of success for an Indian national movement.
- The clearest indicator of the ambivalent role played by British rule in the growth of India’s first nationalist movement was that all fo the major leaders of that movement had received some English education. This was the beginning of the end of the Golden Age for the British Empire. Their inclusions in two major wars would greatly diminish their ability to govern foreign colonies like India and Hong Kong.
- Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Ranade’s foremost disciple, sought with the same forbearance of his mentor to win the hearts and minds of British governors, vicetroys, secretaries of state and other cabinet members on behalf of India’s many appeals for political justice and economic equity.
- It soon became painfully clear to more and more middle-class Indians that no matter how well-intentioned or powerful individual Englishmen like Ripon might be, the system they served was fundamentally unresponsive and hostile to many basic Indian needs, aspirations and desires; it was cold, imperious, paternal and foreign.
- Most of the first Congress representatives were high-caste Hindus and Parsi, all of whom spoke English and had attended college, mostly to study law, though some were journalists, teachers and businessmen.
- The Arya Samaj, founded by Daynanda Sarawati in Bombay proved an important stimulus to the development of nationalist political activism in the Punjab after 1905, but was initially created as a society for Hindu revival and Vedic proselytizing.
- How is Indian nationalism defined?
- How did the English play a role in the Indian nationalist movement?
- How was Gopal Krishna Gokhale involved with the Indian nationalist movement?
- How was British rule perceived by native Indians?
- Who composed India’s elite?
- How did Arya Samaj help Indian nationalism?
- HOW DO MANY COUNTRIES WITH COLONIES HAVE MUCH IN COMMON?
- HOW DO THE COLONIZED VIEW THEIR PLACE IN SOCIETY AS OPPOSED TO THE COLONIZERS?
Additional Internet Research Links For This Lesson:
Gopal Krishna Gokhale