Second Grade Social Studies Unit Plan

Unit Abstract Throughout this unit student explore the concept of local government. The unit begins with a lesson on diversity in communities. This lesson is also a review for why people live in communities. Next, students will explore why people form governments, including the importance of laws and the understanding of services provided by a local government. Then, students will dive further into understanding the importance of laws by writing a law for a problem in a pretend city. In a lesson on how our government is organized, students will learn the term ”¹…”mayor’ and listen to a fiction and nonfiction text in order to understand the duties that a mayor has. Then, students explore the three branches of local government, the mayor, the city council, and the courts, as well as the job of each of these branches. In a lesson on core democratic values, students solve a problem by balancing individual rights with the common good. Next, students learn about the responsibilities of citizens in a local government. In a final lesson on the Pledge of Allegiance, students learn about patriotism and the importance of the Pledge of Allegiance. As a cumulative activity, students take part in two simple city council meetings. During the meetings, students vote on laws and services for their pretend classroom city.

Enduring Understandings

A community has laws to benefit the common good.

A community government exists to keep people safe.

Government makes and enforces the ways to protect individual rights and promote the common good.

Laws are made to protect and benefit citizens

Guiding Questions

1. What is the purpose of government?

2. What does our local government do?

3. What are important roles and responsibilities of citizens in a community?

Grade Level Content Expectations

2 – C1.0.1: Explain why people form governments.

2 – C1.0.2: Distinguish between government action and private action.

2 – C2.0.1: Explain how local governments balance individual rights with the common good to solve local community problems.

2 – C2.0.2: Describe how the Pledge of Allegiance reflects the core democratic value of patriotism.

2 – C3.0.1: Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

2 – C3.0.2: Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

2 – C3.0.3: Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks).

2 – C5.0.1: Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.

2 – C5.0.2: Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and explain why they are important in community life.

Key Concepts

· Branches of government

· Citizen

· City council

· Civic responsibility

· Common good

· Community

· Core democratic values

· Court

· Diversity

· Government

· Individual rights

· Laws

· Mayor

· Patriotism

Lesson Sequence

Lesson 1: Diversity in a Community

Lesson 2: Why Do People Form Governments?

Lesson 3: Why do Communities Need Laws?

Lesson 4: How is Our Local Government Organized? Part 1

Lesson 5: How is Our Local Government Organized? Part 2

Lesson 6: What Does our Government Do?

Lesson 7: What do Core Democratic Values have to do with Government?

Lesson 8: Private Action VS. Government Action

Lesson 9: Make your own City part 1

Lesson 10: Make your own City part 2

Lesson 11:What are some of the Roles and Responsibilities of Citizens in our Local Community?

Lesson 12: What is the Pledge of Allegiance and Why is it Important?

Assessment

Title: Lesson 1 ‘” Diversity in a Community

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs: 2 – G4.0.3: Use components of culture (e.g., foods, language, religion, traditions) to describe diversity in the local community.

Objective:Students will be able to write a list of examples of diversity found in their own community.

Materials:
For the teacher

Everybody brings Noodles By Norah Dooley

Instructional Components
A. Anticipatory Set

· Write the word community on the board.

· Ask students: What do you think the word community means?

· Have students share their answer with their buddy.

· Construct a graphic organizer with the word community in the middle. Call on students to add to the organizer. (Make sure the idea of diversity is brought up- not all people in a community are the same.)

B. Input and Modeling
· I will tell the students that I’m going to read them a book, and I want them to think about how this book is about diversity.

· Read the book Everybody brings Noodles.

· I will ask the students for a few examples of diversity identified in the book.

· I will partner students up and have them go back to their table.

· Partners will work to come up with a list of examples of diversity in their own community, such as differences in food, language, religion, or traditions.

· A few groups will share their examples of diversity with the class.

· Students will come back to the carpet and we will discuss what a community would be like if everybody was the same.

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will write a list of examples of diversity in their community.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal assessment: Students will be assessed by whether they were able to come up with at least five examples of diversity with their partner.

· Informal assessment: I will observe students during the large group discussion and while students are working on their lists.

Title: Lesson 2 – Why Do People Form Governments?

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs:

2 – C1.0.1: Explain why people form governments.

2 – C3.0.2: Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

2 – C3.0.3: Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks).

Objective:Students will be able to complete an open ended sentence explaining why people form governments.

Materials:
For the teacher
Large Lined paper (save for next lesson)
Computer with internet
For the students
Lined paper with space for illustration
Markers Crayons, markers, colored pencils

Preparation
· Set up website
· Set up large lined paper

Instructional Components
A. Anticipatory Set
· Ask students what laws they know about and write these on the large lined paper. (buying a license for your dog, riding your bike on the right-hand side of the road, buckle your seat belt, do not throw trash on the ground, having a hunting license, traffic laws)

B. Input and Modeling
· I want you to imagine that our city does not have any of these laws. (You could also relate this to school rules.)

· Ask students what kind of problems might happen without laws.

· Write the word Government on the large lined paper. Write down the 2 things that governments do as they are discussed.

· Tell students that governments form laws to keep people safe.

· Ask students how the laws on the board keep them safe. Have students pick 1 and share with their buddy.

· Ask volunteers to share their answers with the class.

· Tell students that governments also provide services.

· Ask students: What do you think the word services means? (Services are helpful activities that are provided to a community. Services can also help keep people safe.)

· Tell students that an example of a service is a fire station.

· Ask what other services a government could provide for its people. (police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks, post office)

· Show students Ben’s Guide website and discuss these services provided by a government.

· Ask students how each service benefits them.

· Remind students of the 2 things that the government provides for them.

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will write about why people form governments and the pages will be collected to form a classroom book titled Why People Form Governments.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal assessment: Students will complete an open-ended sentence beginning “People form governments because — ” and illustrate their idea. Students must write at least 2 complete sentences. This will be modeled before they begin. They will then illustrate their page.
· Informal assessment: I will listen to and observe students during the discussion in order to make sure they understand the concepts.

Title: Lesson 3 – Why Do Communities Need Laws?

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCE: 2 – C3.0.1: Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

Objective:Students will be able to work in small groups to write a law in order to solve a problem in a community.

Materials
For the teacher
White board
Dry-erase markers
Laws listed from previous lesson
For the students
Write a Law worksheet
Pencils

Instructional Components
A. Anticipatory Set

· Ask students what rules they have at school.

· Make a list of the students’ responses on the board.

· Ask students what the school would be like without rules.

B. Input and Modeling
· Explain that just as schools need rules, communities need laws.

· Ask students what they think community means? (A community is a group of people living in a certain area. The city of _____ is a community. This school is a community too.)

· Hang up the large lined paper from yesterday and remind students of the laws they came up with.

· Ask students what their community would be like without these laws.

· Have students share their answers with a buddy.

· Ask for volunteers to share their answers with the class.

· Explain to students that there are national laws and local laws. National laws mean that the entire United States has to follow those laws. Local laws mean that only the people living in a certain area have to follow those laws.

· Tell students that we are going to be talking about local laws.

· Share an example of a local law, and asks students to hypothesize why the law was needed. (People are not aloud to play loud music after 9pm.Why do you think this law was needed?)

· Share an actual law from the students’ own community (No person shall allow any snow or ice to remain on their sidewalk for more than 24 hours after the snow or ice has fallen or formed. – Why do you think this law was needed?)

· We will discuss what makes a good law. (understandable, possible to follow, balanced between protecting individual rights and promoting the common good, fair)

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will apply what they have learned to write a law for a pretend city.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal assessment: Students will work with a partner to write a law in order to solve a problem in a pretend community. One partner will be the recorder and the other the reporter. The reporter will share their law with the class.

· Informal assessment: I will observe students while we are in large group. I will also observe students while they are working with their partner to write a law.

Title: Lesson 4 – How is Our Local Government Organized? Part 1

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs:

2 – C3.0.1: Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

2 – C3.0.2: Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

Objective: Students will be able to write three facts they have learned about the job of a mayor.

Materials
For the teacher
Large lined paper
Markers
My Grandma’s the Mayor By Marjorie White Pellegrino
What’s a Mayor? By Nancy Harris (Optional)
For the students
Lined paper
Pencils


Instructional Components Note: This lesson may need to be broken into 2 days if both books are used.
A. Anticipatory Set
· Ask students what they know about the word ‘Mayor.’

· Set up 2 columns and write students’ responses in the first column. (What we Know & What we Learned)

B. Input and Modeling
· Explain you are going to read a fiction book.

· Ask students what they know about fiction books/realistic fiction.

· Read My Grandma’s the Mayor, by Marjorie White Pellegrino.

· Ask: What did you learn about the job of a Mayor?

· Write these in the first column of the chart. (You will only have 1 column if you are not using the non-fiction text.)

· I will have the students stand up and touch their toes and to reach up towards the sky.

· I will then have the students sit back down.

· Tell students: I’m now going to read a nonfiction book.

· Ask students what a nonfiction book is.

· Tell the students: I want you to listen for anything that tells you about the job of a mayor. When I’m done reading we’re going to add more to our chart.

· (Optional) Read What’s a Mayor? By Nancy Harris. (Pgs. 6-12, 27-29)

· Ask: What have you learned about the job of a Mayor from this book?

· Have students stand up to share their answers.

· Write these in the second column of the chart.

· (Save the chart for the next lesson)

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will listen to both a fiction and a nonfiction book.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal assessment: Students will write three facts they have learned about the job of a mayor and share these with the person they are sitting next to.
· Informal assessment: I will observe students during our discussion in large group.

Title: Lesson 5 – How is Our Local Government Organized? Part 2

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs:

2 – C3.0.1:
Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

2 – C3.0.2: Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

Objective: Students will be able to —

1. Name the 3 branches of a local government.

2. Match the 3 branches of a local government to their definitions.

Materials
For the teacher
Large lined paper from previous lesson
Who Leads Our Country? By Weekly Reader
White board
Dry-erase markers
3 branches of local government graphic representation
Computer with internet
For the students
3 branches of local Government worksheet

Instructional Components
A. Anticipatory Set
· Show students the 2 column chart they created about mayors and review what they learned.

B. Input and Modeling
· Read Who Leads Our Country? (pgs. 16-20).

· Show students the 3 branches of local government graphic representation.

· Remind students that laws are necessary in a community and that a city council makes laws and a mayor enforces them through people like police officers.

· Introduce the term ‘court’ and write it on the board. Explain that the job of a court is to interpret, or explain, what laws mean. In addition, courts are responsible for handing out punishment to people who break laws.

· We will look at our mayor and city council members online.

· Find the answers to these questions as a class:
1. Who is our city’s mayor?
2. How many city council members does our city have?

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will listen to a nonfiction book.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal assessment: Students will complete the 3 branches of local government worksheet.
· Informal assessment: I will observe students in large group and while they are completing their worksheet.

Title: Lesson 6- What Does Our Government Do?

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs:

2 – C3.0.2: Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

2 – C1.0.2: Distinguish between government action and private action.

2 – C3.0.3: Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks).


Objective:
Students will be able to —

1. Draw at least 3 different services a local government provides.

2. Write about what their life would be like without a service.

3. Name 1 thing a local government cannot do.


Materials
For the teacher
My Grandma’s the Mayor By Marjorie White Pellegrino
White board
Dry-erase markers
Computer with internet
For the students
Pencil
Worksheet
Crayons, markers, colored pencils

Instructional Components
A. Anticipatory Set
· Review what happened in the book My Grandma’s the Mayor.

B. Input and Modeling
· Guide students to generate a list of different things that local governments do as reflected in the book My Grandma’s the Mayor.

· Write the word ”¹…”services’ on the board.

· Ask students: “What does the word ‘services’ mean?” (Services are helpful activities that are provided to a community. Services can also help keep people safe.)

· Ask students: “What kinds of things are local government services?” (Police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks, post offices)

· Show student the How Does Government Affect Me website.

· Discuss the different services this town has.

· Discuss what our life would be like if we didn’t have each service.

· Have students share their ideas with a buddy.

· Call on volunteers to share their ideas of what life would be like without a particular service.

· Tell students that local governments have power in a community. They are able to create laws and services.

· Ask students if they think local governments can do anything they want to do.

· Students should understand that power has limits.

· “If your room is dirty, can the government make a law that says you have to clean your room? No, the government does not have that much power.

· What other things can the government not tell you to do?

· Students will discuss their answers with a buddy.

· I will call on a volunteer to share their answer.

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will write about services provided by a local government.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal assessment: Students will complete a worksheet on services provided by local governments.
· Informal assessment: I will observe students during our discussion to make sure they understand the concepts.

Worksheet includes the following:

1. Draw or name at least 3 services a local government provides.
2. Pick 1 service and write what your life would be like without that service. Use complete sentences.
3. Name 3 things a local government cannot do.

Title: Lesson 7- What Do Core Democratic Values Have to do with Government?

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs: 2 – C2.0.1: Explain how local governments balance individual rights with the common good to solve local community problems.

Objective: Students will be able to verbally tell how a problem can be solved; balancing individual rights with the common good.


Materials
For the teacher
White board
Dry-erase markers
Old Henry By Joan Blos
For the students
Paper
Pencil


Instructional Components

A. Anticipatory Set

  • Call students to the floor.
  • Write the words individual rights‘ and ”¹…”common good’ on the board.
  • Ask students if they’ve ever heard of these words.

B. Input and Modeling

  • Explain: Individual rights are freedoms that you have that do not hurt others.For example, you are free to express your opinions about something, but you have to be truthful and fair. If you are spreading lies then you are hurting others.
  • Explain: The common good means working together so that the greatest number of people are happy, or to compromise so that everybody gets a little of something they want. Who can give an example of what it means to compromise?
  • Tell students that they will be thinking about these ideas while I read Old Henry. (Stop before the outcome is revealed.)
  • Ask students if they found any examples in the story where individual rights were conflicting with the common good.
  • I will give each student a partner and they will go back to their table to brainstorm solutions to the issue in Old Henry. Each student should write down 1 solution.
  • Partners will share their best solutions with the class.
  • The students will consider which solution best balances the rights of Old Henry and the common good of the community.
  • I will then read the end of the book and we will discuss the outcome.
  • You can have individual rights, but they still have to fit in with the common good. In this book, the town’s people were able to solve a community problem by compromising. Henry decided to mend the gate and shovel the snow. In return, the town would leave his birds alone and let him let his grass grow.

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will listen to the book Old Henry and write a possible solution to the book.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal assessment: Student will share a solution with their partner.
· Informal assessment: I will observe students during our conversation in large group, and I will comment on the possible solutions that are shared with the class.

Title: Lesson 8 – Private action VS Government Action

Subject: Social Studies

Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs: 2 – C1.0.2: Distinguish between government action and private action.

Objective: Students will be able to verbally identify actions that are private actions and those that are government actions.


Materials
For the teacher
White board
Dry-erase markers
Old Henry By Joan Blos


Instructional Components

A. Anticipatory Set
· Ask students to think about a problem they had with another person. How did they solve the problem? Was the government involved or where they able to solve the problem by talking to the person, such as by reaching a compromise.

B. Input and Modeling

  • Write the terms “private action” and “government action” on the board.
  • Say: You can use private action or government action to solve a problem. Private action is when people can solve a problem without using laws, such as by compromising. Government action is used to solve a problem by using laws and consequences to get a person to do something.
  • In Old Henry, both of these actions were used.
  • Reread the part of the book that shows private action and government action.
  • Ask: What type of action did the citizens first try to use to solve their problem? What were the different things they did? (Told him to help their city out, wrote him letters)
  • Have students turn to their buddy and discuss answers.
  • What things happened to Henry that were government actions? (fining him, threatened jail)
  • Have students turn to their buddy and discuss answers.
  • Ask: What’s the difference between private action and government action?

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: I will read part of the book Old Henry.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal Assessment: Students will be able to verbally tell what types of actions in the book represent private actions and which represent government actions.
· Informal assessment: I will observe students during our discussion and comment on their answers.
If time, hand out a vocabulary review worksheet.

My worksheet included the following words and sentences:
right
firefighters
mayor
police officers
government
city council
responsibility
community
individual rights
consequences
services
solution
private action
government action

1. A _________________ is the leader of our city government.

2. Two examples of public safety officials are ________________________ and ______________________.

3. The _________ ___________ makes laws and works with the mayor.

4. We have the ______________________ to keep our community clean.

5. We have the ____________________ to own pets.

6. A ____________________ is made up of a group of people that work together to make and enforce laws that help a city run well.

7. A ____________________ is a place where people live, work, play, and receive services.

8. ___________ _____________ are freedoms that you have that do not hurt others.

9. When you do something wrong, you must live with the ________________.

10. Police stations and libraries are examples of ____________.

11. You come to a _____________ when everybody agrees on how to solve a problem.

12. If you and your neighbor argue about how high his grass should be, but then solve the problem by compromising you are using _________ ____________.

13. If your neighbor gets a ticket for breaking a law that says “your grass can only be up to 5 inches tall,” it is called __________ ____________.

Title: Lesson 9 ‘” Make your own City part 1
Subject: Social Studies
Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs:

2 – C3.0.1: Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

2 – C3.0.2: Use examples to describe how local government affects the lives of its citizens.

2 – C5.0.1: Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.

Objective: Students will be able to create a plan for their campaign poster and explain in writing why they would be a good mayor.


Materials
For the teacher
White board
Dry-erase markers
For the students
Poster planning worksheet
Pencils, markers/colored pencils Voter Registration Cards


Instructional Components
A. Anticipatory Set

  • Tell students that they will be starting their pretend city, and in this city we will need a mayor and city council members. We will start today by making a plan for your campaign poster. You are going to pretend you are running for mayor.

B. Input and Modeling

  • Review the jobs of a mayor. (Enforcing laws by hiring officials such as police officers, at ceremonies celebrating new business openings or the dedication of public monuments or statues, commonly asked to make a speech or cut ceremonial ribbons, visit schools)
  • Explain poster planning worksheet.
  • Discuss: What would make you a good mayor? What kinds of things does a mayor do?
  • Write these on the board. ( At ceremonies celebrating new business openings or the dedication of public monuments or statues, she is commonly asked to make a speech or cut ceremonial ribbons, visit schools, works with the city council, enforces laws)
  • I will pass out the voter registration cards, which students will need in order to vote, while the students are working on their plan.

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Language Arts: Students will be writing about why they would make a good mayor.

D. Assessment Approaches
· Formal Assessment: Students will complete their campaign planning poster.
· Informal assessment: I will observe students during our discussion in large group and while they are working on their planning worksheet.

My planning worksheet included the following:

You are running for mayor of your city.
You need to design a campaign poster that would let the citizens of your city know why you would be a good mayor.

1. Your name (first and last): ______________________

2. Your slogan: (I included a list of slogans on the back of the worksheet)

3. One sentence about what would make you a good mayor.

You must also include on your poster:

  • A picture of yourself
  • The word “vote”
  • The word “mayor”
  • Patriotic colors (red, white, and blue) ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

After you’ve planed your poster get colored pencils or markers and paper to make your poster.

Title: Lesson 10 ‘” Make your own City part 2
Subject: Social Studies
Grade level: 2nd

GLCEs:

2 – C2.0.1: Explain how local governments balance individual rights with the common good to solve local community problems.

2 – C3.0.1: Give examples of how local governments make, enforce, and interpret laws (ordinances) in the local community.

2 – C3.0.3: Identify services commonly provided by local governments (e.g., police, fire departments, schools, libraries, parks).

2 – C5.0.1: Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.

Objective: Students will be able to create a campaign poster that includes the seven required items.

Materials
For the teacher
White board
Dry-erase markers
Poster planning worksheet
For the students
Markers/colored pencils Official Ballot
Voter Registration Cards


Preparation

  • Write the word city council, mayor, court, laws, and services on the board. Leave space between each.

Instructional Components
A. Anticipatory Set

  • Review what the jobs of the city council, the mayor, and the court are. (Mayor- enforces laws, city council- makes laws, and the court- interprets laws.) Write the jobs next to the appropriate words on the board.
  • Ask what laws are created for. (To protect people, to keep people safe.) Write the definition on the board.
  • What’s the difference between laws and rules? Who makes each? Laws have to go through a process to be made. Consequences are different. Laws are set by the government, rules are set by individuals.
  • Review what the term “services’ means. (Services are helpful activities that are provided to a community. Services can also help keep people safe.) Write the definition on the board.
  • Give a few examples of services the students came up with before. (Fire departments, schools, libraries, police departments, post offices, hospitals, parks) Write a few examples on the board.

B. Input and Modeling

  • Tell the students that for the next couple of days they are going to be making laws and creating services for a pretend city.
  • Tell students that today they will be making a campaign poster, which is like an advertisement to get people to vote for you.
  • Not all of you have to run for Mayor, but you all need to make a poster. When you’re done with your poster, then you can decide if you want to run for Mayor of our city.
    • Remind students of their poster planning worksheet.
  • Remainder of lesson is planned for the next morning, and some throughout the day.
  • Explain that the mayor only votes in case of a tie, and he/she has veto power. Veto power means he/she can say “no” if he doesn’t like a law that the city council has passed.
  • Tell students: When you are done with your campaign poster they can get their voter’s registration card and vote for mayor.
  • Have each student vote for one person at their table to serve on the city council.
  • Have city council members hold first meeting and come up with ideas for city’s name. The citizens of our pretend city will also be able to draw from the Fate cards and present a problem to the council.

C. Cross-Curricular Connections
· Art: Students will create campaign posters.

D. Assessment Approaches

  • Formal Assessment: Students will be assessed by whether they were able to complete their campaign poster by including the seven required items listed on the handout.
  • Informal assessment: I will observe students while they are working to make sure they are following their plan.

    (See the next section for the city council meeting rules and other city council in.)


    How laws are passed

    • The Mayor, a Council Member, or a citizen may propose an ordinance to address an identified problem.
    • Laws must be submitted in writing at a city council meeting (I will write) and submitter must have 5 citizens from the community who agree in the form of a hand raise.
    • The public is invited to city council meetings to speak on issues, concerns, or suggestions.
    • After the public meeting, the Council may adopt the ordinance or deny it. Each member votes yes or no. If a majority of the Board members vote to approve the ordinance, it is considered passed and final. If it’s a tie, the mayor will decide. The mayor may also veto a decision.
    • The titles of passed ordinances are then published in the local newspaper. Passed ordinances are incorporated in the city’s Municipal Code (which will be written on the side of a poster that also has a visual representation of the city on it).

    Jobs of the Mayor

    • Calls meetings to order by saying “The meeting is now in session. Are all council members present?”
    • Tells citizens who will be enforcing each law.
    • Hires people to do city jobs with the approval of the city council
    • In charge of public relations- ceremonies celebrating new business openings or the dedication of public monuments or statues, he/she is commonly asked to make a speech or cut ceremonial ribbons, visit schools.
    • The head duck at city council meetings. He/she only votes in case of a tie, and he has veto power. Veto power means he can say “no” if he doesn’t like a law that the city council has passed.

    Jobs of the City Council Members

    • Council members help lead discussion at meetings.
    • Vote on laws

    Jobs of the Citizens

    • Votes for mayor
    • Proposes laws, services, or issues at meetings
    • Votes on services

    Agenda & Rules
    1. Register to vote. (Students will get voter registration cards which they will need in order to vote.)

    2. Run for mayor. Students make a poster/speech and tell the public why they should vote for him/her.

    3. City Council members will be nominated. (Students will vote for 1 person at their table.)

    4. 1st City Council meeting.

    5. The mayor will start each meeting by saying “The meeting is now in session. Are all council members present?”

    6. City Council and Mayor will vote on a name for the city.

    7. City newspaper will display new town name. (Students can work on newspaper articles during writing time)

    8. 2nd City Council meeting. 9 members of the public will draw from the “fates” and present a problem to the Council. Other members of the public can join in discussion.

    9. The mayor will ask the public and Council for suggestions of laws/solutions to fix the problem.

    10. I will write down any proposed laws. The citizen who proposed the law must get 5 citizens to support the law (in the form of raising their hands) in order for the Council to vote and make it a law.

    11. After the public meeting, the Council may adopt the ordinance or deny it. Each member votes yes or no. The mayor only votes in case of a tie, and he has veto power. Veto power – he can say “no” if he doesn’t like a law that the city council has passed. If the majority of the Board members vote to approve the ordinance, it is considered passed and final.

    12. The title of passed ordinances are then published in the local newspaper. Passed ordinances are then incorporated in the city’s Municipal Code.

    13. The mayor will make a speech telling the public who will be enforcing each law. A reporter for the newspaper may interview the mayor and write about who will be enforcing each law.

    • Additional Notes
      • During Council meetings, the citizens will draw a problem from the “fates” that requires a new law or service to be built or created in the city.
      • The Fates are pieces of paper that will have a problem written on it. The student who draws the problem will present the problem to the city council & mayor at a meeting. This student must also get 5 signatures for a law to be voted on.
      • There will be an election after meetings where registered voters can vote to add the service to the city. Students will vote yes or no at the round table. Vote counters will add up the yes and no votes.
      • At public meetings, the mayor will draw a “fate” card from the mayor pile. The card will tell the mayor what he/she recently did in the community and he/she will share this with those at the meeting. (Went to a ceremony celebrating a new business opening, dedication of a public monument or statue, to make a speech or cut a ceremonial ribbon, visit a school.)
      • Choose volunteers: reporters & service vote counters. Reporters will write about what happened at the city council meeting while they are waiting for votes to be counted, and during free time.

      Our pretend city was displayed on a laminated poster board. The city started out with only roads, and then pictures of services were taped onto it. Laws were written on the side of the board.

      Public Fate Cards(Laminated cards that students draw and read during city council meetings. The council members lead a discussion on how these problems can be solved and the resulting services/laws are then voted on.)

    • Many people in the city are getting rashes from poison ivy. Is there something we can do to get rid of all the poison ivy in the city?
    • Every night when I go to bed I hear very loud music coming from everyone’s house. I have to get up early in the morning and the loud music doesn’t let me sleep. Can something be done to stop this loud music at night? Who else has this problem too?
    • My kids don’t have anywhere to play after school. Can we create a park?
    • I would like to send a letter to my friend who lives in Florida, but we don’t have a post office yet. Can we get this service built? Who else agrees?
    • I walk to school and since there are no sidewalks, I have to walk in the road. Isn’t this dangerous? Our city needs sidewalks!
    • Yesterday I was taking a walk and I came across a lady who was walking her dog. The dog was not on a leash and ran at me. I was afraid he was going to attack me. This has happened before. There should be a law saying people must walk their dogs on a leash.
    • My friends and I would like to take some dance classes, but there is no place that offers this. I think we need a neighborhood center that would offer different kinds of classes.
    • My house was robbed last night. There was no one to stop the robbers. I think we need a police department.
    • My stove caught on fire yesterday. I tried putting out the fire myself and was badly burnt. It would have helped if we had a fire department.
    • We still don’t have a school for our kids. How are they supposed to learn if they don’t go to school? Who agrees with me?
    • I have a concern. What if someone gets very sick or hurt? We don’t have a hospital to help them get better. Don’t you think we need one?
    • My family doesn’t have anywhere to read books. We need a library in this city.
    • There is a lot of litter in our city. I always see people throwing their trash on the ground. How can we stop people from doing this and make our city cleaner?
    • I’m having a hard time driving down the streets because people are parking their cars in the streets. Their needs to be a law so this doesn’t happen anymore.
    • There is a lot of snow on the sidewalks so I’m forced to walk in the road. This isn’t safe. People need to be shoveling their sidewalks when it snows. Can’t we make a law so people will do this?
    • Read this problem only if there are sidewalks in the town: I saw a person who was riding a bicycle get hit by a car because they were riding in the middle of the road. What can be done so this doesn’t happen again?
    • My family does not own a car. Can we get a bus system for our city so people like me can get to work and the grocery store?
    • In school I learned about how recycling is good for the environment. We don’t have a recycling program here yet. Can we set one up?

      Mayor Fate Cards(You may have the mayor read a card from the mayor pile at each meeting.)

    • Yesterday I was celebrating the opening of a new business by cutting the ceremonial ribbon.
    • Today I was invited to a school where I got to talk to the students about local government and the job of a mayor.


      Title:
      Lesson 11: What are Some of the Roles and Responsibilities of Citizens in our Local Community?
      Subject: Social Studies
      Grade level: 2nd

      GLCEs:

      2 – C5.0.1: Identify ways citizens participate in community decisions.

      2 – C5.0.2: Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and explain why they are important in community life.

      Objective: Students will be able to —

      1. Verbally distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities.

      2. Vote on a pretend community decision.

      Materials
      For the teacher
      Good citizen Sarah By Virginia Kroll
      For the students
      Lined paper
      Pencils

      Instructional Components
      A. Anticipatory Set

      • Review why people form governments.
      • Review the values that are important to our government.
      • Review the organization of local governments and some of the things they can do.

      B. Input and Modeling

      • Ask students “What is a citizen?” (A citizen is a person who belongs to a community or country.)
      • Tell students that citizens have responsibilities.
      • Read Good citizen Sarah . “I want you to think about what it means to be a citizen as I read this book.”
      • Ask students what responsibilities citizens have. “A personal responsibility would be caring for and feeding your pet. What responsibilities do you have as a citizen?”
      • “If the government makes laws, what is the citizens’ responsibility?” (To follow laws.)
      • Classification game: I will say an activity and students will stand up to tell me if it is a personal responsibility or a civic responsibility.

      -Promoting the common good (civic)

      -Obeying the law (civic)

      -Eating breakfast

      -Paying taxes (civic)

      -Feeding your dog

      -Helping to pick up trash in a park (civic)

      -Voting (civic)

      -Combing your hair

      -Doing your homework

      • We will practice voting on a pretend community issue. “Should the community buy a new fire truck or add a skateboarding rink to the local park?”
      • Students will vote with their eyes closed in large group.
      • I will then ask students why they voted the way they did.
      • Students will go back to their seats and write 1-2 sentences that explain why.
      • I will call on a few students to share with the class.

      C. Cross-Curricular Connections
      · Language Arts: Students will write about why they voted for a pretend community to buy a new fire truck or add a skateboarding rink to a park.

      D. Assessment Approaches

      • Formal Assessment: Students will be assessed by whether they wrote 1-2 complete sentences that explain their reasoning for their vote.
      • Informal assessment: I will observe the students’ discussion in large group.

      Title: Lesson 12: What is the Pledge of Allegiance and Why is it Important?
      Subject: Social Studies
      Grade level: 2nd

      GLCE: 2 – C2.0.2: Describe how the Pledge of Allegiance reflects the core democratic value of patriotism.

      Objective: Students will be able to —

      1. Draw what they look like when saying the Pledge of Allegiance.

      2. Write why we say the Pledge of Allegiance.

      Materials:
      For the teacher
      I pledge allegiance By Nancy Harris
      White board
      Dry-erase markers
      For the students
      The Pledge of Allegiance Handout
      Crayons/markers/colored pencils
      Assessment worksheet

      Instructional Components
      A. Anticipatory Set

      • Play the song Fifty Nifty United States as students are coming to sit down on the carpet.
      • Write “Patriotism’ on the board.
      • Ask: What do you think patriotism means? (Showing respect and love for your country.)
      • Ask: What is one way we show our patriotism every morning? (Saying the Pledge of Allegiance.)
      • Tell students to stand up like they are about to say the Pledge of Allegiance.
      • Have them sit again and ask: What does your body look like when you’re saying the Pledge of Allegiance? (Standing, looking at flag, right hand over heart)

        B. Input and Modeling
        · Why do you think we say the Pledge of Allegiance? Have students turn to a buddy and share.
        · Ask: What do you think a symbol is? I’m going to read you a book and I want you to pay close attention to how the word ”¹…”symbol’ is used. After I’m done reading, I’m going to ask you to name the different symbols that are mentioned in the book.

        • Read the book The Pledge of Allegiance.
        • Ask: Now, what do you know about symbols?
        • Both the Pledge of Allegiance and the American flag are patriotic symbols. They both show respect and love for our country.
        • Say the 1st line of the Pledge: I pledge allegiance to the flag. What does that mean?

        o A pledge is a promise.

        o Allegiance is loving and being true to something; being loyal.

        · Tell students that some parts of the Pledge may be hard to understand, so we’re going to say it in a way that will be easier to understand. (Have students go back to their seats)

        • Have students quietly read the new version on the right, to themselves.
        • Have students stand, like they are saying the Pledge, and read the new version aloud.
        • Explain the other side of the worksheet.

        C. Cross-Curricular Connections
        · Art: Students will draw a picture of themselves saying the Pledge of Allegiance.
        · Language Arts: Students will write about why we say the Pledge of Allegiance.

        D. Assessment Approaches
        · Formal assessment: Students will be assessed by whether they were able to correctly complete the Pledge of Allegiance worksheet. You may have students look up the words in the Pledge of Allegiance in a thesaurus and write their own version using words they better understand.
        · Informal assessment: I will observe students in large group and while they are completing their worksheet.

The following 2 versions of the Pledge were placed in 2 columns on the back of the worksheet.. The words were lined up so the words in the 1st version were in the same spot to their synonyms in the 2nd version.


The Pledge of Allegiance
I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands one Nation under God, indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all.

Our New Pledge of Allegiance I promise loyalty to the flag of the United States of America, and to our government for which it stands one country, under God, unable to be separated, with freedom and fairness for all.


The worksheet contained the following:

1. Draw a picture of yourself saying the Pledge of Allegiance.
2. Why do you think we say the Pledge of Allegiance?

Unit Assessment

Directions: Give a reason for each law.

1. Ride your bike on the right-hand side of the road.

2. Buckle your seat belt.

3. Do not throw your trash on the ground.

4. Shovel your side walk when there is snow on it.

5. Keep your dog on a leash when it’s outside.

6. Keep your mailbox clear of snow.

7. Do not park cars in the street.

8. Noise levels must stay low after 9pm.

Directions:Choose 1 of the examples below and tell who made the law, who would enforce the law, and who would interpret (or judge) whether the law was broken. (Use the laws from the previous section. Answers should be mayor, city council, or court.)

Directions: List 2 responsibilities of citizens in our local community?

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words in the box. (Use the sentences and vocabulary words from the vocabulary review worksheet found after lesson 8.)

Directions: Name 3 services a local government provides.

Directions:

1. Draw a picture of yourself or your friends saying the Pledge of Allegiance
2. Write 1 or 2 sentences explaining why we say the Pledge of Allegiance.