Found in the retroperitoneum at the rear of the abdominal cavity the kidneys accept blood from the renal arterior off the side of the abdominal aorta below the superior mesenteric artery, drain into the renal veins, and excrete urine into the ureter tubes that pass it on to the bladder.
Containing a bean shape, an adrenal gland on top of each one of them, and located on either side of the spine, medical ailments commonly associated with the kidneys include renal cyst fluid collections, the Acute Kidney Injury that produces rapid losses of kidney functions, urinary tract infections, urinary tract obstructions, nephritic glomerular disorders affecting the filtering of blood to form urine, various cancers, renal cell carcinoma, the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, nephrolithiasis, kidney stones, and various nephritic disorders that cause the kidneys to leak heavy doses of proteins, such as serum proteins, from the blood to the urine, creating abnormally low albumin levels that may lead to hypoalbuminemia, chronic malnutrition, edema, decreased oncotic pressure, and protein-losing enteropathy.
Chronic Kidney Disease:
Chronic Kidney Disease is the progressive loss of renal functions over a period of time that may include such ailments as improperly maintained acid-base balances in the body, incorrectly regulated electrolytes, improperly filtered blood, not removing waste products to the bladder, not excreting ammonia and urea, not producing renin enzymes, erythropoietin glycoprotein hormones that control red blood cell productions, and calcitrial that increases blood calcium levels, not reabsorbing glucose, water, and amino acids, not regulating extracellular fluid volumes, erythropoiesis, not stimulating red blood cell production in bone marrow, and failing to regulate blood pressures by not controlling water and salt balances.
The earliest stages of Chronic Kidney Disease may display no symptoms at all, however, high blood pressures and diabetes mellitis are the two main causes of the ailment. Other causes of Chronic Kidney Disease may include artery problems inside the kidneys, birth defects, toxic chemicals, certain medications, injuries, traumas, autoimmune diseases, kidney stones, reflux nephropathy, kidney diseases, IgA Nephritis, prostate diseases, pin worms, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hypertension, renal artery stenosis, vasculitis, fluid overloads, azotemia, overproduction of vasoactive hormones, uremia, encephalopathy, hyperkalemia, the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and glomerulonephritis.
The symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease include bone pains, nausea, losses of appetites, headaches, pruritis, fatigue, general feelings of sickness, abnormally light or dark skin colorings, confusion, muscle twitching, bad breath, numbness in the hands, feet, and other body parts, excessive thirst, frequent hiccups, amenorrhea, restless leg syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, blood in the stools, abnormally easy bruising, edema, morning sickness, high blood pressures, abnormal heart or lung sounds, nerve damages, protein changes, the potentially lethal cardiac dysrhythmia electrical activities in the heart, atherosclerosis, artery wall thickenings, hyperphosphatemia, electrolyte disturbances in the blood, hypocalcaemia, tetany muscle contractions, acidemia, metabolic acidosis, and cardiovascular diseases.
Chronic Kidney Disease may be diagnosed through such measures as renal scans, abdominal CT scans, abdominal MRIs, creatinine levels, creatinine clearance tests, complete blood counts, and blood urea nitrogen tests.
Treatment options for Chronic Kidney Disease include dialysis, kidney transplants, restricting potassium, salt, phosphorous, and other electrolytes, eating enough calories, low protein diets, limiting fluid intakes, Vitamin D, iron, and calcium increases, blood transfusions, Erythropoietin shots, anemia treatments, phosphate binders, controlling blood pressures to delay further kidney damages, not smoking, low cholesterol and low fat diets, regular exercises, cholesterol lowering medications, maintaining proper blood sugar levels, and staying current on vaccinations including the Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B vaccines, the Swine Flu H1N1 vaccine, flu shots, and the Pneumococcal Polysaccharide PPV vaccine.
Acquired disorders associated with Chronic Kidney Disease include acute renal failure, Stage Five Established Chronic Kidney Disease with poor life expectancies if left untreated by a kidney transplant, pyelonephritis, ascending urinary tract infections, the Minimal Change Kidney Disease that creates nephrotic syndromes in children, Lupus Nephrotic kidney inflammations caused by the immune system disease Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus, kidney tumors, renal cell carcinomas, kidney stones, Nephroblastoma, or Wilm’s Tumor, in children, nephrolithiasis, kidney enlargments caused by urine flow obstructions, hydronephrosis, Interstitial Nephritis affecting the interstitium that absorbs fluid recovered from urine, Diabetic Nephropathy that is a major indicator of the need for dialysis, the Kimmelstiel-Wilson Syndrome, and glomerular nephritic inflammations of the small blood vessels in the kidneys.
Congenital disorders associated with Chronic Kidney Disease include Ureteropelvic Junction obstructions, renal dysplasia, unilateral small kidneys, renal agenesis causing one kidney not to form, renal fusions, horseshoe kidneys, crossed fused ectopia, a duplicated ureter, congenital hydronephrosis dilations of the renal pelvis calyces, congenital urinary tract obstructions, duplux kidneys, the autosomal dominant polyceptic kidney disease caused by mutations of the PKD1 gene, the most common life-threatening genetic disease in the world, and the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease caused by mutations of the PKHD1 gene that produces fibrocystin proteins.
Complications frequently associated with Chronic Kidney Disease include a higher risk of bone fractures, seizures, liver damages, malnutrition, infertility, miscarraiges, high potassium levels, high phosphorous levels, a higher risk of infections, hyperthyroidism, paracarditis, Strokes, coronary artery diseases, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, blood vessel complications, dementia, peripheral neuropathy, blood sugar changes, stomach or intestinal bleeding, anemia, and muscle, bone, and joint pains.
It is highly recommended that all Chronic Kidney Disease patients have their bone densities, parathyroid hormone, erythropoietin hormone, electrolyte, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, sodium, cholesterol, albumin, and potassium levels checked every two to three months.
Determined by having a three month long Glomerular Filtration Rate of less than 60mL/min/1.73m2, which is less than one half of the adult level of normal kidney functions, or kidney damage, with the loss of proteins in the urine as the independent marker for renal functioning and cardiovascular disease worsenings, Chronic Kidney Disease is staged as:
Stage One: Slightly diminished renal functionings and a GFR more than, or equal to, 90mL/min/1.73m2.
Stage Two: A mild reduction in renal functionings and a GFR of 60-89mL/min/1.73m2.
Stage Three: A moderate reduction in renal functionings and a GFR of 30-59mL/min/1.73m2.
Stage Four: A severe reduction in renal functionings and a GFR of 15-29mL/min/1.73m2.
Stage Five: Established kidney failure, permanent renal replacement required, and a GFR less than 15mL/min/1.73m2.
This Article was compiled from several websites that provide much more information about Chronic Kidney Disease including:
http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/ (the National Kidney Foundation’s website)