The cerebrum accounts for over 80% of the brain’s volume. When most people visualize the brain, they think of the two cerebral hemispheres, separated by the longitudinal fissure. Each cerebral hemisphere contains thick folds of tissue known as gyri, and grooves known as sulci.
The Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is composed of the gray matter lining the surface of the two cerebral hemispheres. The lobes, sulci and gyri are all visible on the cerebral cortex.
Lobes of the Cerebrum
The cerebrum can be divided into five distinct lobes; the frontal lobe, the parietal love, the occipital lobe, the temporal lobe and the insula.
The Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe is located behind the frontal bone, above the eyes. The frontal lobe is responsible for voluntary movement, foresight, emotion, judgement, aggressiveness, problem solving, selective attention and memory.
The Parietal Lobe
The parietal lobe is made up of both left and right portions and can be found beneath the parietal bones. The parietal lobe is responsible for the controlling of sensations, such as touch, taste and some visual processing.
The Occipital Lobe
The occipital lobe is located on the posterior portion of the brain, beneath the occipital bone. The occipital lobe is the primary center for processing visual information.
The Temporal Lobe
The temporal lobe is located beneath the temporal bone and is responsible for processing sensory information, such as hearing and smell. The temporal lobe also plays a role in learning, short term memory, visual memory and verbal memory.
The insula is less understood, due to its deeper location, but is believed to play a role in spoken language, the sense of taste and visceral sensation.
White Matter Within the Cerebrum
The cerebrum is composed primarily of white matter. The white matter within the cerebrum contains bundles of nerve fibers known as tracts. Within the cerebrum, there are three types of tracts present; projection tracts, commissural tracts and association tracts. Projection tracts carry signals between the body and cerebrum. Commissural tracts carry signals from one cerebral hemisphere to the other, allowing the two hemispheres to communicate. Association tracts link portions of the same hemisphere together.
Saladin, Kenneth S.. Anatomy & physiology: the unity of form and function. 5th ed. Dubuque: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
Anatomy of the Brain
Anatomy of the Brain